The Office of the President
executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.
President is head of the executive department, one of the three
co-equal branches of government under the 1987 Constitution, which
provided for a democratic and republican state. An oath of office
binds the President "to preserve and defend its Constitution, execute
its laws, do justice to every man."
What are the powers of the President?
appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces
from the rank of colonel and naval captain, and other officers
whose appointments are vested in him in the Constitution
approve the appointments of the members of the judiciary
control all the executive department, bureaus, and offices and
ensure the laws are faithfully executed
act as commander in chief of all armed forces of the Philippines
and call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless
violence, invasion, or rebellion
suspend the writ of habeas corpus or place the country or any
part of it under martial law for a period not exceeding 60 days
in case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires
grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and
forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except in cases
contract or guarantee foreign loans
veto enactments and call special sessions of Congress
direct the solicitor general to institute expropriation proceedings
in courts or reversion proceedings over property transferred to
persons disqualified under the Constitution from acquiring land
reserve any land of the public domain for settlement or public
sale, as well as stop the sale of any land belonging to the government's
private domain or any friar land.
direct the solicitor general to institute proceedings to recover
the ill gotten wealth of government officials and employees
deport foreigners or change the status of nonimmigrants
Who may be elected president?
natural-born citizen of the Philippines
to read and write
least 40 years old on election day
resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years immediately
preceding the election
How is the President elected?
direct vote of the people in a regular election held on the second
Monday of May.
of every election for President and Vice President, duly certified
by the board of canvassers of each province or city, are transmitted
to Congress, directed to the president of the Senate.
Senate president opens, not later than 30 days after the day of
the election, the certificates in the presence of the Senate and
the House of Representatives in joint public session.
determines the authenticity and canvasses the votes, guided by
the rules it has promulgated for canvassing the certificates.
person having the highest number of votes is proclaimed elected.
case two or more persons have an equal and highest number of votes,
one of them will be chosen president by the majority of all the
members of both houses of Congress, voting separately.
Supreme Court, sitting en banc, is the sole judge of all contests
in relation to the election, returns, and qualifications of the
President and the Vice President.
PCIJ Reports on Estrada