LOCAL GOVERNMENT | PROVINCIAL
A province is composed of a cluster of municipalities, or municipalities
and component cities. A province may be created if it has an average
annual income of not less than P20,000,000 based on 1991constant prices
and a contiguous territory of at least 2,000 square kilometers or
a population of not less than 250,000. The territory need not be contiguous
if it comprises two or more islands or is separated by a chartered
city or cities which do not contribute to the income of the province.
Each province has a governor, a vice governor, members of the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan, a secretary to the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, a provincial
treasurer, a provincial assessor, a provincial accountant, a provincial
engineer, a provincial budget officer, a provincial planning and
development coordinator, a provincial legal officer, a provincial
administrator, a provincial health officer, a provincial social
welfare and development officer, a provincial general services officer,
a provincial agriculturist, and a provincial veterinarian.
In addition, the governor may appoint a provincial population officer,
a provincial natural resources and environment officer, a provincial
cooperative officer, a provincial architect, and a provincial information
The provincial government is a microcosm of the national government.
It operationalizes the separate but complementary branches of government:
the executive, the legislative, and the judicial components of governance.
The executive branch, headed by the governor, is tasked to implement
provincial ordinances and applicable national laws and statutes.
The executive has under its jurisdiction all the national government
agencies operating in the province.
The legislative branch, which is mandated to enact provincial ordinances,
is headed by the vice governor and is composed of the members of
the Sangguniang Panlalawigan.
The judicial branch is charged with the interpretation of laws
and the implementation of the judicial system. It is vested in the
regional trial court (RTC) which is headed by an RTC judge. If there
are two or more RTCs in the province, an executive judge is designated
to handle the administrative supervision of all courts within the
In addition, independent constitutional bodies (such as the Commission
on Audit and the Commission on Elections), which are not under the
jurisdiction of any of the three branches of government, also operate
in the province.
Who may be elected governor, vice governor, and member of the
citizen of the Philippines
least 23 years old on election day
to read and write Filipino or any other local language or dialect
registered voter and a resident for at least one year immediately
preceding the election in the province where he or she is running
What happens if a permanent vacancy occurs in the office of
vice governor becomes the governor.
a permanent vacancy occurs in the offices of the governor and
vice governor, the highest ranking sanggunian member or, in case
of his or her permanent disability, the second highest ranking
sanggunian member, will become the governor or vice governor.
tie between or among the highest ranking sanggunian members shall
be resolved by the drawing of lots.
vacancies shall be filled automatically by other sanggunian members
according to their ranking.
successor will serve only the unexpired terms of his or her predecessor.
While Congress Hounds
Supreme Court, Local Governments are off the Hook
Even as Congress continues to assert its power to examine disbursements
from the Supreme Courtís Judicial Development Fund, both Houses
have not demanded a similar scrutiny of the way local governments
have been spending public monies. Our two-part investigation reveals
how local governments are scandalously wasting public funds, including
the purchase of everything from pencils to hospital beds overpriced
by 1,000 percent. READ